General information

Automated mobility refers to vehicles that are capable to operate without human interaction. Depending on a level of automation humans might still be needed in the process, as a role of safety driver (on board) or remote operator (off board). Different levels of automation are commonly described by SAE-levels as presented in the picture below/left/right. Important difference is between ADAS, which refers to Advanced Driver-Assistance Systems, and ADS, which refers to Automated Driving Systems. With the lower automation levels (ADAS) human driver is always responsible for the vehicle operation, but with the higher automation levels (ADS), the vehicle itself is responsible for the dynamic driving tasks.

Legislation in Finland currently requires every vehicle to have a human driver, but this driver doesn’t need to be inside the vehicle, therefore making remote operations possible. In practice all the Finnish pilots involving higher levels of automation have started with the safety driver on board, but the aim is to remove safety driver and support on remote operator.